Britannica Born on July 28

Born on July 28

Antonio, Nicolas
Antonio, Nicolás (b. July 28/31, 1617, Seville--d. April 13, 1684, Madrid), first systematic historian of Spanish literature. His Bibliotheca Hispana appeared in two parts (Nova, 1672; Vetus, 1696). The first is a vast bibliography of Peninsular and Spanish colonial writers after 1500, with critical evaluations. The second, a history of Peninsular literature from the reign of Augustus to 1500, marks the emergence of modern bibliography and the transformation of literary history into a scholarly discipline. A second edition (1788; vol. 1 of the Nova dated 1783), with additions from Antonio's manuscripts, is still consulted.
Phillips, Stephen
Phillips, Stephen (b. July 28, 1864, Summertown, Oxfordshire, Eng.--d. Dec. 9, 1915, Deal, Kent), English actor and poet who was briefly successful as a playwright.
Perrine, Charles Dillon
Perrine, Charles Dillon (b. July 28, 1867, Steubenville, Ohio, U.S.--d. June 21, 1951, Villa General Mitre, Arg.), U.S. astronomer who discovered the sixth and seventh moons of Jupiter in 1904 and 1905, respectively. In 1904 he published a calculation of the solar parallax (a measure of the Earth-Sun distance) based on observations of the minor planet Eros during one of its close approaches to the Earth.
Cherenkov, Pavel Alekseyevich
Cherenkov, Pavel Alekseyevich, Cherenkov also spelled CERENKOV (b. July 28 [July 15, Old Style], 1904, Novaya Chigla, Russia--d. Jan. 6, 1990, U.S.S.R.), corecipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958 with Igor Y. Tamm and Ilya M. Frank, both also of the Soviet Union, for their investigation and interpretation of the phenomenon called Cherenkov radiation ( q.v.).
Formstecher, Solomon
Formstecher, Solomon (b. July 28, 1808, Offenbach, Hesse [Germany]--d. April 24, 1889, Offenbach), Jewish idealist philosopher who was rabbi at Offenbach from 1842. Die Religion des Geistes (1841; "The Religion of the Spirit") is considered the most complete exposition of his philosophy and a thorough systematization of Judaism. He believed there were only two basic religions: the religion of nature (paganism) and the religion of spirit (Judaism). He thought the essence of Judaism was ethical. Its ethics, adulterated by myth and art, were also disseminated by Christianity and Islam but existed in purest form in Judaism.
Machen, John Gresham
Machen, John Gresham (b. July 28, 1881, Baltimore--d. Jan. 1, 1937, Bismarck, N.D., U.S.), U.S. Presbyterian scholar (Princeton Theological Seminary) who joined in forming the doctrinally conservative Presbyterian Church in America (1936; later named the Orthodox Presbyterian Church) after his suspension from the ministry by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., for his opposition to modern liberal revision of the 17th-century English Presbyterian creed, the Westminster Confession of Faith. Criticizing Liberal Protestantism as unbiblical and unhistorical in his Christianity and Liberalism (1923), he left Princeton (1929) to help found Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia.
Miro (Ferrer), Gabriel
Miró (Ferrer), Gabriel (b. July 28, 1879, Alicante, Spain--d. May 27, 1930, Madrid), Spanish writer distinguished for the finely wrought but difficult style and rich, imaginative vocabulary of his essays, stories, and novels.
Sannazzaro, Jacopo
Sannazzaro, Jacopo (b. July 28, 1456, Naples [Italy]--d. April 24, 1530, Naples), Italian poet whose Arcadia was the first pastoral romance and, until the rise of the Romantic movement, one of the most influential and popular works of Italian literature.
Vallee, Rudy
Vallee, Rudy, byname of HUBERT PRIOR VALLEE (b. July 28, 1901, Island Pond, Vt., U.S.--d. July 3, 1986, North Hollywood, Calif.), one of the most popular American singers of the 1920s and '30s. His collegiate style as a singing bandleader made him a national figure.
Leyster, Judith
Leyster, Judith (b. July 28, 1609, Haarlem, Neth.--d. Feb. 10, 1660, Heemstede, near Amsterdam), Dutch painter, one of the few female artists of the era to have emerged from obscurity. Among her known works are portraits and genre and still-life paintings.
Anderson, Mary
Anderson, Mary (b. July 28, 1859, Sacramento, Calif., U.S.--d. May 29, 1940, Broadway, Worcestershire, Eng.), American actress who achieved great popularity because of her exceptional beauty and highly successful publicity.
Lipps, Theodor
Lipps, Theodor (b. July 28, 1851, Wallhalben, Bavaria [Germany]--d. Oct. 17, 1914, Munich), German psychologist best known for his theory of aesthetics, particularly the concept of Einfühlung, or empathy, which he described as the act of projecting oneself into the object of a perception.
Fitzsimmons, Fat Freddie
Fitzsimmons, Fat Freddie, byname of FREDERICK LANDIS FITZSIMMONS (b. July 28, 1901, Mishawaka, Ind., U.S.--d. Nov. 18, 1979, Yucca Valley, Calif.), U.S. professional National League right-handed baseball pitcher, who was famous for his windup in which he rotated his pitching arm while twisting his body so that he faced second base before turning to deliver the pitch. His best pitch was a knuckle ball.
Bosendorfer, Ignaz
Bösendorfer, Ignaz (b. July 28, 1796, Vienna, Austria--d. April 14, 1859, Vienna), Austrian builder of pianos and founder of the firm that bears his name.
Fabre d'Eglantine, Philippe(-Francois-Nazaire)
Fabre d'Églantine, Philippe(-François-Nazaire) (b. July 28, 1750, Carcassonne, Fr.--d. April 5, 1794, Paris), French political dramatic satirist and prominent figure in the French Revolution; as deputy in the National Convention he voted for the death of Louis XVI. He added the appellation d'Églantine to his surname, Fabre, after falsely claiming that he had won a golden eglantine in a literary competition. After publishing the poem Étude de la nature (1783; "Study of Nature"), he wrote many comedies, the most celebrated--Le Philinte de Molière (1790), a sequel to Molière's Misanthrope --in which the major characters are drawn as a politically dangerous aristocrat and a virtuous Republican. His best known work is the song "Il pleut, il pleut, bergère" ("It's raining, it's raining, shepherdess"), a song which French children still sing today.
Grisi, Giulia
Grisi, Giulia (b. July 28, 1811, Milan, Italy--d. Nov. 29, 1869, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]), Italian soprano whose brilliant dramatic voice established her as an operatic prima donna for more than 30 years.
Fearing, Kenneth (Flexner)
Fearing, Kenneth (Flexner) (b. July 28, 1902, Oak Park, Ill., U.S.--d. June 26, 1961, New York, N.Y.), American poet and novelist who used an array of topical phrases and idiom in his satires of urban life.
Muti, Riccardo
Muti, Riccardo (b. July 28, 1941, Naples, Italy), Italian conductor of both opera and the symphonic repertory.
Namatjira, Albert
Namatjira, Albert (b. July 28, 1902, Hermannsburg, near Alice Springs, N.Terr., Australia--d. Aug. 8, 1959, Alice Springs), Australian Aborigine painter noted for his watercolour landscapes of desertlike central Australia.
Sobers, Sir Garfield (St. Auburn)
Sobers, Sir Garfield (St. Auburn), byname SIR GARRY SOBERS (b. July 28, 1936, Bridgetown, Barbados), West Indian cricketer, considered by many authorities the most gifted all-around player of all time. As a batsman he established a record for Test (international) matches by scoring 365 runs, not out, in a single innings (West Indies versus Pakistan, 1957-58 season). He was also exceptional in bowling and in close-to-the-wicket fielding.
Bradley, Bill
Bradley, Bill, byname of WILLIAM WARREN BRADLEY (b. July 28, 1943, Crystal City, Mo., U.S.), collegiate and professional basketball player, who after retirement from the game became a U.S. senator.
Kraszewski, Jozef Ignacy
Kraszewski, Józef Ignacy (b. July 28, 1812, Warsaw, Duchy of Warsaw [now in Poland]--d. March 19, 1887, Geneva, Switz.), Polish novelist, poet, literary critic, dramatist, historian, and journalist who was the dominant figure among prose writers of Poland's Romantic period.
Townes, Charles Hard
Townes, Charles Hard (b. July 28, 1915, Greenville, S.C., U.S.), American physicist, joint winner with the Soviet physicists Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Prokhorov and Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1964 for his investigations into what later became known as quantum electronics and specifically for his role in the invention of the maser and the laser.
Jaspar, Henri
Jaspar, Henri (b. July 28, 1870, Schaerbeek, Belg.--d. Feb. 15, 1939, Brussels), Belgian statesman and one of his country's chief negotiators in the peace conferences following World War I. As prime minister (1926-31), he resolved a serious financial crisis at the outset of his ministry.
Lowe, Sir Hudson
Lowe, Sir Hudson (b. July 28, 1769, Galway, County Galway, Ire.--d. Jan. 10, 1844, London, Eng.), British general, governor of St. Helena when Napoleon I was held captive there; he was widely criticized for his unbending treatment of the former emperor.
Piccard, Jacques (-Ernest-Jean)
Piccard, Jacques (-Ernest-Jean) (b. July 28, 1922, Brussels), Swiss oceanic engineer, economist, and physicist, who helped his father, Auguste Piccard, build the bathyscaphe for deep-sea exploration and who also invented the mesoscaphe, an undersea vessel for exploring middle depths.
Ashbery, John (Lawrence)
Ashbery, John (Lawrence) (b. July 28, 1927, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.), American poet noted for the elegance, originality, and obscurity of his poetry.
Popper, Sir Karl
Popper, Sir Karl, in full KARL RAIMUND POPPER (b. July 28, 1902, Vienna, Austria), Austrian-born British philosopher of natural and social science who subscribed to antideterminist metaphysics, believing that knowledge evolves from experience of the mind.
Cope, Edward Drinker
Cope, Edward Drinker (b. July 28, 1840, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.--d. April 12, 1897, Philadelphia), paleontologist who discovered approximately a thousand species of extinct vertebrates in the United States and led a revival of Lamarckian evolutionary theory, based largely on paleontological views.
Blumberg, Baruch S(amuel)
Blumberg, Baruch S(amuel) (b. July 28, 1925, New York City), American research physician whose discovery of an antigen that provokes antibody response against hepatitis B led to the development by other researchers of a successful vaccine against the disease. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1976 with D. Carleton Gajdusek for their work on the origins and spread of infectious viral diseases.
Sturmer, Boris Vladimirovich
Sturmer, Boris Vladimirovich, Strumer also spelled SHTYURMER (b. July 28 [July 16, old style], 1848--d. Sept. 2, 1917, Petrograd, Russia), Russian public official, who served as prime minister, minister of the interior, and minister of foreign affairs during World War I.
Toutin, Jean and Henri
Toutin, Jean and Henri (respectively, b. 1578, Châteaudun, Eure-et-Loire, Fr.--d. June 14, 1644, Paris; b. July 28, 1614, Châteaudun--d. c . 1683, Paris), French enamelworkers, father and son, known for their fine enamel miniature paintings. Jean Toutin was one of the first artists to make enamel portrait miniatures.
Bridges, Harry
Bridges, Harry, original name ALFRED BRYANT RENTON BRIDGES (b. July 28, 1901, Kensington, near Melbourne, Vic., Australia--d. March 30, 1990, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.), Australian-born American labour leader, president of the San Francisco-based International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU) from 1937 to 1977.
d'Amboise, Jacques
d'Amboise, Jacques, original name JACQUES JOSEPH AHEARN (b. July 28, 1934, Dedham, Mass., U.S.), dancer and choreographer of the New York City Ballet (1949-84), admired for his energetic, virile interpretations of both character and classical roles.
Potter, (Helen) Beatrix
Potter, (Helen) Beatrix (b. July 28, 1866, South Kensington, Middlesex, Eng.--d. Dec. 22, 1943, Sawrey, Lancashire), English author of children's books, who created Peter Rabbit, Jeremy Fisher, Jemima Puddle-Duck, Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle, and other animal characters.
Sarraut, Albert
Sarraut, Albert, in full ALBERT -PIERRE SARRAUT (b. July 28, 1872, Bordeaux, Fr.--d. Nov. 26, 1962, Paris), French Radical-Socialist statesman most noted for his colonial policy and liberal rule as governor-general of Indochina.
Lloyd, (John) Selwyn (Brooke)
Lloyd, (John) Selwyn (Brooke), also called (1976-78) JOHN SELWYN BROOKE SELWYN -LLOYD, BARON SELWYN -LLOYD OF WIRRAL (b. July 28, 1904, Liverpool--d. May 17, 1978, Preston Crowmarsh, Oxfordshire, Eng.), British Conservative politician who was foreign secretary during Britain's diplomatic humiliation in the Suez crisis of 1956 and later chancellor of the exchequer under Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
Lowry, (Clarence) Malcolm
Lowry, (Clarence) Malcolm (b. July 28, 1909, Birkenhead, Cheshire, Eng.--d. June 27, 1957, Ripe, Sussex), English novelist, short-story writer, and poet whose masterwork is Under the Volcano (1947; reissued 1962). It was begun in 1936 and is redolent of that period, when the world itself seemed to be lurching toward self-destruction.
Cassirer, Ernst
Cassirer, Ernst (b. July 28, 1874, Breslau, Silesia, Ger.--d. April 13, 1945, New York City), German Jewish philosopher, educator, and prolific writer remembered for his interpretation and analysis of cultural values.
Ancillon, Charles
Ancillon, Charles (b. July 28, 1659, Metz, Fr.--d. July 5, 1715, Berlin), lawyer, educator, and historian, who was the leader of the French Protestant refugees in Germany. Ancillon played an important role in advancing the intellectual and educational interests of that community.
Feuerbach, Ludwig (Andreas)
Feuerbach, Ludwig (Andreas) (b. July 28, 1804, Landshut, Bavaria--d. Sept. 13, 1872, Rechenberg, Ger.), German philosopher and moralist remembered for his influence on Karl Marx and for his humanistic theologizing.
Mayo FAMILY, the most famous group of physicians in the United States. Three generations of the Mayo family, pioneers in the practice of group medicine, established the world-renowned Mayo Clinic and the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research at Rochester, Minn.
Ibn al-'Arabi
Ibn al-'Arabi, in full MUHYI AD-DIN ABU ' ABD ALLAH MUHAMMAD IBN ' ALI IBN MUHAMMAD IBN AL -'ARABI AL-HATIMI AT- TA'I IBN AL -'ARABI, also called ASH- SHAYKH AL -AKBAR (b. July 28, 1165, Murcia, Valencia--d. Nov. 16, 1240, Damascus), celebrated Muslim mystic-philosopher who gave the esoteric, mystical dimension of Islamic thought its first full-fledged philosophic expression. His major works are the monumental al-Futuhat al-Makkiyah ("The Meccan Revelations") and Fusus al-hikam (1229; "The Bezels of Wisdom").
Hopkins, Gerard Manley
Hopkins, Gerard Manley (b. July 28, 1844, Stratford, Essex, Eng.--d. June 8, 1889, Dublin), English poet and Jesuit priest, one of the most individual of Victorian writers. His work was not published in collected form until 1918, but it influenced many leading 20th-century poets.
Duchamp, Marcel
Duchamp, Marcel (b. July 28, 1887, Blainville, Fr.--d. Oct. 2, 1968, Neuilly), French artist who broke down the boundaries between works of art and everyday objects. After the sensation caused by "Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2" (1912), he painted few other pictures. His irreverence for conventional aesthetic standards led him to devise his famous ready-mades and heralded an artistic revolution. Duchamp was friendly with the Dadaists, and in the 1930s he helped to organize Surrealist exhibitions. He became a U.S. citizen in 1955.
Dodington, George Bubb, BARON MELCOMBE OF MELCOMBE -REGIS, original name (until 1717) GEORGE BUBB (b. 1691--d. July 28, 1762, Hammersmith, Middlesex, Eng.), English politician, a career office seeker who was the subject of a satirical engraving by William Hogarth, "Chairing the Members" (1758), and kept a diary (published 1784) that remains one of the best sources on British politics of his time.
.Tyrconnell, Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of, BARON OF DONEGALL
.Tyrconnell, Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of, BARON OF D ONEGALL, also called RODERICK O 'DONNELL (b. 1575--d. July 28, 1608, Rome [Italy]), Irish chieftain who rebelled against the English and died in exile.
Massine, Leonide
Massine, Léonide, original name LEONID FYODOROVICH MIASSIN (b. Aug. 9 [July 28, Old Style], 1896, Moscow--d. March 15, 1979, Cologne, W.Ger.), dancer and innovative choreographer of more than 50 ballets, one of the most important figures in 20th-century dance.
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